28o HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. was-captured by the Imam of Oman in I65I,1 and no great while after the capture of Hormuz only deserted forts and the word portugale^ the name by which a sweet orange is known in Persia, were left to mark the splendid position gained by the valour of D'Albuquerque and lost by the incapacity of his successors. For the English the taking of Hormuz was the most important event which had occurred since their appearance in the East, and their power and prestige must have risen to great heights when the news reached India. In Persia, too, they must have acquired credit; for although the commander of the Shah's troops would doubtless minimize the part played by our countrymen, whose losses were trifling compared with his own, without doubt Abbas fully realized that he coulfl not have seized Hormuz without English help. When, in A.D. 163 5, the British made peace with Portugal in the East—a peace which has never since been broken— the Persians were much alarmed on account of Hormuz, a fact which sufficiently shows how important was the part played in those Eastern waters by our fighting ancestors, The Dutch.—Two years after the grant of the British East India Company's charter, rival Dutch efforts were amalgamated into a single company, and in the course of the next twenty years the newcomers had won their way to a leading position, mainly at the expense of Portugal, whose chief possessions they seized. A Dutch factory seems to have been established at Hormuz the year after its capture by the Anglo-Persian expedition ;2 it was subsequently moved to Bandar Abbas, where the massive building still remains and serves as the residence of the Persian Governor. In 1652, and again in 1666, Dutch missions visited Isfahan, and Chardin writes that at this period the Dutch were masters of the Persian trade, the English occupying the second place. Their success was due to their forcing the Persian Government to allow them to buy silk in any part of Persia and to export it without paying customs dues. This right was acquired in 1645, * FideTfa^mams of Oman, edited for Hakluyt Society by Rev. P. Badger, p. 81 ff. Persia, ii. p. 550. This section and the following are mainly based on Lord Curwmfc work. Chardin's work, too, deserves study.